Learning Trial and Error Theory for CTET Examination 2017: Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) is organized by Central Board of Secondary Education for aspirants having desire to join Central Government Schools such as NVS/ KVS/ Tibetan School etc as a Teacher. It is an All India level entrance exam conducted every year.
CTET Examination 2017 notification is expected to come in a few days. Many of the CTET Aspirants have started preparing for the same. Let us help them by explaining one of the most important topics i.e Trial and Error theory.
CTET Examination 2017: Learning Trial & Error Theory
Learning begins when the organism faces a new and difficult situation – a problem. Most learning organism counters errors, and with repeated trials, errors reduce. The phenomenon is called Trial and Error Learning in a simple sense.
Features of Trial and Error Learning
- Learning by trial and error is a gradual process.
- For learning to occur, the learner must be definitely motivated.
- The learner makes a random and variable response.
- Some responses do lead to the goal (annoying response)
- Some responses lead to the goal. (satisfying responses)
- With the increase in the number of trials, the annoying responses will tend to be eliminated and the satisfying responses will be strengthened and repeated.
- The time taken to perform the task (to repeat the satisfying response) decreases with successive trials.
Trial and Error is a method of learning in which various response are tentatively tried and some discarded until a solution is attained. The first miniature Trial and Error learning system of the method was provided by Thorndike’s research on Animal Intelligence in 1898. This form of learning falls under S-R learning theory and also known as Connectionism.
Below mentioned are the examples of the Trial and Error learning. A few experiments were done on animals to understand the theory of trial and error.
Experiments on Trial and Error Learning
i) Cat Experiment by Thorndike:
Thorndike put a cat is a puzzle-box with iron bars on the sides, and a door which could be opened by catching and pulling a loop which was bending above in the center of the box. The cat, hungry for 24 hours, had the motivation of eating fish outside the box. But how to open the door? The cat made several unsuccessful attempts of biting the irons, striking head against these, and finally, it was successful in pulling the loop.
The same experiment was repeated several times and it was found that the cat in each successive attempt took less time in reaching the goal. It took 160 seconds for the first successful attempt, but a few seconds for the last trial.
(ii) Dog Experiment by Loyd Morgan:
The dog was put into an iron cage, with a door not clearly visible or discernable. The dog made a number of attempts before he could discover the door.
(iii) Rat Experiment by Mc Dougal:
The rats were similarly confined in a small box with a secret passage. After committing mistakes for 165 times, they succeeded in finding out the correct passage.
(iv) Fish Experiment:
Thorndike put Fundulus (a type of fish that live in shade) in an aquarium with a glass partition, and one part of which was in sun. There was a small hole in the partition. First, they were put in the shade, and then in sun. In order to escape the sun, the fish made attempts to find out the passage to the shade, until they did discover the hole. The experiment was repeated, and it was found that in the succession experiments, the number of unsuccessful attempts went on decreasing progressively.
The term “Trial and Error Learning” was then introduced as the number of trials resulted in decreased number of errors.
Ordinarily, trial and error learning is connected with motor learning. But it has also some implications for abstract thinking.
Some of the school subjects that require abstract thinking like science and mathematics are affected by this process. The pupils have to make a number of unsuccessful attempts before he arrives at the desired result. He should, therefore, be trained to make attempts over and over again, and without feeling bored. The school boys motto should be ‘try, try again’. Important Educational Implications of Trial and Error Theory of Learning are given below:
- Thorndike’s theory emphasizes the importance of motivation in learning. So learning should be made purposeful and goal directed.
- It stresses the importance of mental readiness, meaningful practice and incentive in the learning process.
- The law of readiness implies that the teacher should prepare the minds of the students to be ready to accept the knowledge, skills, and aptitudes before teaching the topic.
- More and more opportunities should be given to the learners to use and repeat the knowledge they get in the classroom for effectiveness and longer retention.
- To maintain a learned connection for a longer period, review of learned material is necessary.
- The law of effect has called attention to the importance of motivation and reinforcement in learning.
- In order to benefit from the mechanism of association in the learning process what is being taught at one situation should be linked with the past experience of the learner.
Here we conclude our article on CTET Examination 2017: Learning Trial and Error Theory. We hope this article will help you in preparing for your upcoming examination. Stay connected for more information regarding CTET Recruitment 2017. To excel in Teaching Exams, download the Best Teaching Exam Preparation App for free.