CTET Exam 2017: Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) is organized by Central Board of Secondary Education for aspirants having desire to join Central Government Schools such as NVS/ KVS/ Tibetan School etc as a Teacher. It is an All India level entrance exam conducted every year.
CTET Exam 2017 notification is expected to come in a few days. Many of the CTET Aspirants have started preparing for the same. Let us help them by explaining one of the most important topics i.e Understanding Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
CTET Exam 2017: Understanding Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s (1943, 1954) Hierarchy of Needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. Maslow stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precedence over others. Our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behaviour.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is an excellent model for understanding human motivation, but it is a broad concept. If you are puzzled as to how to relate given behaviour to the Hierarchy it could be that your definition of the behaviour needs refining. For example, ‘where does ‘doing things for fun’ fit into the model? The answer is that it can’t until you define ‘doing things for fun’ more accurately.
You’d need to define more precisely each given situation where a person is ‘doing things for fun’ in order to analyse motivation according to Maslow’s Hierarchy, since the ‘fun’ activity motive can potentially be part any of the five original Maslow needs.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs five-stage model includes:
- Physiological– health, fitness, energising mind and body, etc.
- Safety – order and structure needs met for example by some heavily organised, structural activity
- Belongingness – team sport, club ‘family’ and relationships
- Esteem – competition, achievement, recognition
- Self-Actualization drivers – challenge, new experiences, love of art, nature, etc.
However in order to relate a particular ‘doing it for fun’ behaviour the Hierarchy of Needs we need to consider what makes it ‘fun’ (i.e., rewarding) for the person. If a behaviour is ‘for fun’, then consider what makes it ‘fun’ for the person – is the ‘fun’ rooted in ‘belongingness’, or is it from ‘recognition’, i.e., ‘esteem’. Or is the fun at a deeper level, from the sense of self-fulfilment, i.e., ‘self-actualization’.
Here we will explain one by one topic. Below mentioned is the explanation of the 1st model i.e Physiological Needs’
Physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such as:
According to Maslow’s theory, if such needs are not satisfied then one’s motivation will arise from the quest to satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the needs basic to one’s bodily functioning. Safety Once physiological needs are met, one’s attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm.
Safety needs include physical, environmental and emotional safety and protection. For instance- Job security, financial security, protection from animals, family security, health security, etc.
Once a person has met the lower level physiological and safety needs, higher level needs become important, the first of which are social needs. Social needs are those related to interaction with other people and may include:
- Need for friends
- Need for belonging
- Need to give and receive love
All humans have a need to feel respected; this includes the need to have self-esteem and self-respect. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition. These activities give the person a sense of contribution or value. Low self-esteem or an inferiority complex may result from imbalances during this level in the hierarchy. People with low self-esteem often need respect from others; they may feel the need to seek fame or glory. However, fame or glory will not help the person to build their self-esteem until they accept who they are internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can hinder the person from obtaining a higher level of self-esteem or self-respect.
Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: a “lower” version and a “higher” version. The “lower” version of esteem is the need for respect from others. This may include a need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The “higher” version manifests itself as the need for self-respect. For example, the person may have a need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence, and freedom. This “higher” version takes precedence over the “lower” version because it relies on an inner competence established through experience. Deprivation of these needs may lead to an inferiority complex, weakness, and helplessness.
Maslow states that while he originally thought the needs of humans had strict guidelines, the “hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated”. This means that esteem and the subsequent levels are not strictly separated; instead, the levels are closely related.
Instead of focusing on psychopathology and what goes wrong with people, Maslow (1943) formulated a more positive account of human behavior which focused on what goes right. He was interested in human potential, and how we fulfill that potential. It is important to note that self-actualization is a continual process of becoming rather than a perfect state one reaches of a ‘happy ever after’ (Hoffman, 1988).
‘It refers to the person’s desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially.
The specific form that these needs will take will of course vary greatly from person to person. In one individual it may take the form of the desire to be an ideal mother, in another it may be expressed athletically, and in still another it may be expressed in painting pictures or in inventions’ (Maslow, 1943, p. 382–383).
Characteristics of self-actualization:
- keen sense of reality – aware of real situations – objective judgement, rather than subjective
- see problems in terms of challenges and situations requiring solutions, rather than see problems as personal complaints or excuses
- need for privacy and comfortable being alone
- reliant on own experiences and judgement – independent – not reliant on culture and environment to form opinions and views
- not susceptible to social pressures – non-conformist
- democratic, fair and non-discriminating – embracing and enjoying all cultures, races and individual styles
- socially compassionate – possessing humanity
- accepting others as they are and not trying to change people
- comfortable with oneself – despite any unconventional tendencies
- a few close intimate friends rather than many surface relationships
- sense of humour directed at oneself or the human condition, rather than at the expense of others
- spontaneous and natural – true to oneself, rather than being how others want
- excited and interested in everything, even ordinary things
- creative, inventive and original
- seek peak experiences that leave a lasting impression
Limitations of Maslow’s Theory
- It is essential to note that not all employees are governed by same set of needs. Different individuals may be driven by different needs at same point of time. It is always the most powerful unsatisfied need that motivates an individual.
- The theory is not empirically supported.
- The theory is not applicable in case of starving artist as even if the artist’s basic needs are not satisfied, he will still strive for recognition and achievement.
Here we conclude our article on CTET Exam 2017: Understanding Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. We hope this article will help you in preparing for your upcoming examination.